The Agile methodology is an approach to the software development process that focuses on flexibility, collaboration and incremental delivery of working products. It was introduced to address the limitations of traditional software development methodologies, such as the Waterfall model, which often tend to be inflexible and poorly adaptable to change.

Here are some key concepts of the Agile methodology:

  • Iteration and Augmentation: Instead of developing the software in one large iteration, the Agile approach involves dividing the work into small iterations, called ‘sprints’. Each sprint usually lasts one to four weeks and produces an increment of usable functionality.
  • Prioritising customer needs: Agile places a strong emphasis on customer involvement throughout the development process. Customer needs and requirements are taken into account continuously and can be adapted during the project.
  • Collaboration and communication: Agile promotes regular communication and collaboration between development team members, as well as with the customer. This means that team members work together to address challenges and make decisions.
  • Self-organised teams: Agile teams are encouraged to be self-organised, which means that they are responsible for planning, executing and controlling their own work. This fosters an environment in which team members feel empowered and motivated.
  • Adaptability to change: Agile recognises that requirements and priorities may change during the course of the project. Therefore, it is designed to be flexible and able to adapt to new information and requirements.


There are several specific methodologies within the Agile approach, including Scrum, Kanban, and XP (Extreme Programming), each with its own practices and tools. In this in-depth look at one of the most popular methodologies: Scrum


Agile methodology: SCRUM

The SCRUM methodology is a framework that is used by a team to manage complex projects in order to extract as much value as possible through iterative solutions.


The SCRUM pillars

Scrum is framed within the framework of agile methodologies and is based on flexibility in adopting changes and the cooperation of a group of people sharing their expertise. The strength of this methodology is its empirical approach: knowledge is derived from experience, so decisions are made from what has been observed.


The most important pillars and features of this methodology are :

  • Transparency: the whole team involved is aware of the various stages of the project and what happens.
  • Inspection: In order to make these elements transparent, progress towards agreed targets must be inspected and evaluated in order to detect undesirable problems.
  • Adaptation: If and when there is something to change, the materials produced must be adapted and the whole team adapted to achieve the Sprint objective.


Before going on to define what Sprint is, it is necessary to provide an explanation of the three most important figures of the SCRUM method:

  1. The Product Owner is responsible for maximising the value of the product by defining and prioritising the functionalities to be developed, and works closely with the Scrum team and stakeholders to ensure that the product meets the users’ needs.
  2. The Scrum Master is in charge of making SCRUM theory and practices understood by all.
  3. The SCRUM Team consists of a Scrum Master, a Product Owner and the Devolopers (those who are in charge of creating any aspect of a usable increment at each Sprint). It is a cohesive unit of professionals who evaluate the activities of the Product backlog without any outside influence. Their common thread is shared responsibility.


The stages of the SCRUM process.

Let’s talk about Sprint (Iteration) again. It is the beating heart of SCRUM because everything that happens to give value, happens within a Sprint. The maximum duration is one month as having longer Sprints can result in the loss of valuable customer feedback.

The next phase is Sprint planning, which kicks off the Sprint by setting the work to be done. The whole team must have a goal (the Sprint Goal) and must work together to define its value and/or increase it through discussion.

The purpose of the Daily SCRUM is to inspect the progress towards the Sprint Goal and to adapt the Sprint backlog as needed. It is a meeting that lasts a maximum of 15 minutes and must necessarily be attended by the developers of the Scrum team. The purpose is to improve communication and promote rapid decision-making, eliminating the need for further meetings.

The Sprint Review is the penultimate of the Sprint events and lasts a maximum of four hours for a one-month Sprint. Its purpose is to inspect what has been completed or changed in the context of the Sprint.

The Sprint Retrospective is the last phase of the SCRUM methodology and aims to plan ways to increase quality and effectiveness. It is a great opportunity for the SCRUM team to self-assess what improvements or problems have emerged and how they have or have not been solved.


SCRUM Artifacts

In the context of Scrum, artefacts are documents or objects that are used to facilitate the planning, communication and monitoring of work progress during the course of a project. There are three main artefacts in Scrum:


Product Backlog:

  • Description: The Product Backlog is a prioritised list of all functionalities, features, updates and bug fixes that might be needed for a product. It is a kind of ‘queue’ of things to be done.
  • Owner: The Product Owner is responsible for the Product Backlog. It is his task to prioritise items according to the value they bring to the customer.
  • Priority criteria: Items higher up in the list have a higher priority and need to be better detailed. Items further down the list may be less well defined.
  • Updating and Refining: The Product Backlog is continuously updated and refined in response to customer feedback and changes in product requirements.


Sprint Backlog:

  • Description: The Sprint Backlog is a selection of items from the Product Backlog that the team commits to complete during a specific sprint. It contains only those items that the team believes can be completed within the duration of the sprint.
  • Responsibility: The team is responsible for its own Sprint Backlog. The Product Owner can provide guidance, but the team is free to organise the work as it sees fit.
  • Sprint Planning: The Sprint Backlog is created during sprint planning, which is an initial meeting in which the team selects items from the Product Backlog and determines how they will implement them.
  • Daily update: During the sprint, the team holds daily Scrum meetings to update each other on the status of the work and to adapt the plan according to new information.



  • Description: The product enhancement is the result of sprint work. It is an evolution of the product that includes all functionalities completed and ready for delivery.
  • Requirement: Each increment must meet the Definition of Done criteria defined by the team and accepted by the Product Owner.
  • Presentation and review: At the end of each sprint, the team presents the product increment to the product owner and, if applicable, to the customer for feedback and acceptance.

These artefacts are fundamental to the functioning of Scrum, as they help to define, organise and track work during the development cycle. Each artefact has a specific role in the Scrum process and helps to maintain transparency and clarity in the work of the team.


In conclusion, it is necessary to emphasise how essential it is to clearly define the Scrum or Agile methodology in a written agreement as it provides a solid basis for the project success. A detailed contract establishes expectations, roles, responsibilities and delivery criteria, reducing ambiguities and conflicts. It also fosters collaboration and transparency between the parties involved, promoting a culture of continuous adaptation and improvement. This contractual approach creates an environment of trust and clarity, which is crucial to reaping the full benefits of agile methodologies, where flexibility and communication are central to success.